The Indonesia as a world leader in the production of palm oil , is one of the poles of growing biofuels market. Based on agribusiness and export, large Indonesian and Malaysian companies are developing, generating deforestation , land and social conflicts … According to the Indonesian Ministry of Forests, more than 25% of Indonesian deforestation was due to logging. palm oil between …
The Billiton Maatschappij and then from 1924 to 1972 Gemeenschappelijke Mijnbouwmaatschappij Billiton and from 1972 to 2001 Billiton International Metals BVbefore merging with the Australian mining company Broken Hill Proprietary Company or BHP to become BHP Billiton , was a Dutch mining company played the xix th and xx thcenturies an important role in the extraction of minerals in the Dutch East Indies and in Indonesia .
Sarinah is a store of Indonesia , located Jalan MH Thamrin 11, in the neighborhood of Menteng in Jakarta . The store was built between 1963 and 1967. It was inaugurated in 1967 by President Soekarno .
Solidarité Indonesia is a non-governmental international solidarity organization specialized in helping victims of natural disasters and conflicts in Indonesia. Active since 2005 in the economic recovery and resocialization of victims, it operates in the islands of Java and Sumatra.
The Indonesian rupiah or rupiah (IDR) is the monetary unit of Indonesia . Born during the Japanese occupation during the Second World War , it became the national currency on November 2, 1949 , replacing the Dutch East Indies guilder , four years after the country’s independence. His name is inspired by the monetary unit of India: the Indian rupee .
Surabaya Stock Exchange ( SSX ) ( Bursa Efek Surabaya ( BES ) in Indonesian ) was a stock exchange that officially opened on June 16, 1989, with only thirty-six shareholders . It was created to assist the Indonesian government in capital markets and economic development in the eastern region of Indonesia 1 .
The Jakarta Stock Exchange is a former establishment resulting from the creation by the Dutch in 1912 of a Stock Exchange for only colonial societies, which became in 1977 an independent scholarship in the service of the country. It merged in September 2007 with the Surabaya Stock Exchange to form the Indonesia Stock Exchange .
The Indonesia Stock Exchange ( Indonesian : Bursa Efek Indonesia , IDX) is a stock exchange based in Jakarta , Indonesia . It was previously known as the Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX), prior to its merger in 2007 with the Surabaya Stock Exchange (SSX). At the end of 2012, Indonesia Stock Exchange listed 462 companies, for a total capitalization of $ 426.78 billion .
The Bank of Indonesia (in Indonesia : Bank Indonesia ) is the Indonesian central bank. It was created in 1953, when Soekarno nationalized the Javasche Bank (Bank of Java) created during the colonial era.
The Indonesia has a market economy in which widely involved the government . There are more than 164 state -owned companies and the government controls the prices of several commodities such as oil , rice and electricity . Indonesia has many assets with large areas of agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
The Pemerintahan Darurat Republik Indonesia ( PDRI or “Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia”), is an Indonesian government established in response to the capture of the temporary capital of the Republic of Indonesia , Yogyakarta , and the capture of Revolutionary leaders by the Dutch during the Operatie Kraai . He was based in Bukittinggi on the island of Sumatra and was led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara .
The conquest of the Banda Islands by the Dutch , also known as the Banda massacre , is a military conquest which, in 1621, resulted in the occupation of the Banda Islands by the Dutch East India Company , as well as a severe loss of population on these islands, whose inhabitants were killed by the famine as a result of …
Herman Willem Daendels is a Dutch soldier, born onOctober 21, 1762at Hattem , Gelderland , in the Republic of the United Provinces , and died on May 2 , 1818in St. George of Elmina, on the Ghanaian coast 1 . He was an officer in the Northern Army under the Revolution , then was given high responsibilities when his native country passed under French influence. Under the First Empire , he was lieutenant-general and then governor-general of the Dutch …
The Darul Islam ( Arabic : دار الإسلام , Dar al-Islam , literally “house of Islam”) is a political movement of Indonesia which, from 1949 in 1963, wanted to impose by force an Islamic state in Indonesia ( Negara Islam Indonesia ) . It is also known as DI / TII ( Tentara Islam Indonesia or “Islamic Army of Indonesia”).
The Kono statement refers to the statement of 4 August 1993 issued by the Chief Cabinet Secretary Yōhei Kōno after the conclusion of a government study that showed that the Imperial Japanese Army forced women (known as ” comfort women “) to work in brothels during the Second World War .
The Indonesians call Demokrasi Liberal (liberal democracy) the period that begins in 1950, in the wake of the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty and the end of the ” Indonesian Revolution “, and ends with the inauguration by President Soekarno of the ” Democracy Directed “in 1957 .
Dharmarakshita ( x th century ), also known by its Tibetan name Serlingpa Tibetan : གསེར་ གླིང་ པ , Wylie : gser gling pa , is a sovereign prince of a region of the island of Sumatra , and custodian of the lines transmissions of the mind of awakening 1 . It is a Buddhist religious teacher deemed the x th century who lived in Sriwijaya (now Palembang ) in the south of the island Indonesia of Sumatra . He wrote …
The 13 and 14 May 1998 , the riots occurred in Jakarta , capital of Indonesia . More riots took place in Surakarta ( Central Java ) on 14-15 May. Many shops belonging to Indonesians of Chinese origin have been attacked and looted. During these riots, more than 1,200 people were killed. Most were people trapped in the fire at the Mega Mall in the new town of Lippo Karawaci west of Jakarta. Among them, …
The Ottoman expeditions to Aceh are the missions sent by the Ottoman Empire to Aceh , a sultanate located at the northern tip of the island of Sumatra east of the Indian Ocean. These are the farthest Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean .
The State of Eastern Indonesia (in Indonesia : Negara Indonesia Timur ) is a state created by the Dutch in 1946 and disappeared in 1950 . It consisted of Bali and the other Small Islands of the Sunda , Celebes and the Maluku archipelago and had the capital Makassar in the south of Celebes .
The eruption of Tambora in 1815 is a volcanic eruption taking place in Indonesia . At the beginning of the year without summer , the eruption alone killed 92,000 people . It is considered the most violent eruption of historical times, after the eruption of the Samalas in 1257 1 and the Minoan eruption of the volcano of Santorini in Greece in 1610 BC, and that of the volcano Taupo , located in New Zealand , in 230.
The Kelud eruption in 1919 is a volcanic eruption of Kelud , an Indonesian volcano in Java .May 1919. That month, the awakening of the volcano expels 38 million m 3 of water from a lake which previously was at its peak, causing a lahar which, in addition to the pyroclastic issued also killed 5,110 people 1 . The eruption is one of the deadliest in historical times.
The eruption of Samalas in 1257 is a major volcanic event of the Middle Ages , the consequences of which had a strong impact on the Earth. The existence of a major eruption ( volcanic explosivity index 7) on that date was first attested by the paleoclimatology (several unusually cold years) and traces of sulfates recorded in ice cores as well in Arctic in Antarctica , on the same date, confirming the …
The eruption of Merapi in 2010 is a volcanic eruption that took place on the Merapi of October 26 , 2010at the beginning of 2011. This volcano , considered the most active and dangerous of Indonesia , is located in the center of the island of Java , in the heart of a densely populated area . The populations, poorly prepared for the consequences of an eruption of this volcano that can result in sudden flashing …
The Krakatoa eruption of 1883 is a cataclysmic volcanic eruption that reshaped the physiognomy of Krakatoa , a gray volcano in Indonesia . Occurred August 27 , 1883to 10 pm 2 , it caused a noise appalling and father of noctilucent clouds in the sky that could be observed until Northern Europe , where Edvard Munch reproduced ten years later in his famous painting The Scream .
The eruption of Kelud in 1586 is a volcanic eruption of Kelud , an Indonesian volcano in Java , in the year 1586 . Having killed about 10,000 people, it is one of the deadliest eruptions of historical times.
The Saka era or Shaka era is used in the Indian national calendar , some calendars, such as Hindu in Bali or the Javanese calendar (in) (but with the lunar year Muslim for the latter) in Indonesia and the old calendar Buddhist in Cambodia . Its zero year is around the year 78 AD. AD
The Brunei Empire was a Malay sultanate centered around Brunei in the north of the island of Borneo . At the origin of this empire, there is a little kingdom founded in the vii th century by a pagan or Hindu king known by the Chinese as Li Po-name. Brunei kings converted to Islam in xv th century, their empire extended significantly following the capture of Malacca by the Portuguese 1 , 2 on the coast of Borneo and the Philippines , then …
The Third War of the Javanese Succession is a conflict between Pakubuwono II , Susuhunan (“sovereign”) of the Javanese kingdom of Mataram , from 1746 to 1755, one of his uncles, Prince Mangkubumi, and one of his cousins, the Prince Said. It ends with the signature, under the auspices of the VOC ( Dutch East India Company ), of the Giyanti Treaty , which includes the founding of the Yogyakarta Sultanate and …
The second Javanese War of Succession was a conflict between Amankurat IV , Susuhunan (“ruler”) of the Javanese kingdom of Mataram (1719-1726) and his younger brothers, Princes Blitar and Purbaya, from 1719 to 1723. uncle, Prince Arya Mataram, who proclaims himself king. The rebellion will be curbed thanks to the help of the VOC ( Dutch East India Company ), increasing the Javanese debt towards it.
The first Javanese War of Succession was a dispute between Amangkurat III , Susuhunan (“ruler”) of the Javanese kingdom of Mataram (reign 1703-1708) from 1704 to 1708 to his uncle, Prince Puger, who considered himself Legitimate heir to the previous king, Amangkurat II , and whom the VOC ( Dutch East India Company ) will recognize as sovereign under the title of Pakubuwono I (reign 1704-1719).
The Padri War , also known as the Minangkabau War , is the name given to the intervention of Dutch colonial troops from 1821 to 1837 in western Sumatra in what is now Indonesia . The Padri , a group of Wahhabi- influenced Muslims on a trip to Mecca , have been upsetting Sumatra for nearly a decade.
The Lombok war is the Dutch colonial intervention on the Indonesian island of Lombok , then under the rule of the Balinese kings of Karangasem in 1894 .
The Bone war , in Indonesian Perang Bone , which the Dutch call Tweede Boni-expeditie (“Boni’s second operation”) or Makassaarse expeditie (” Makassar expedition “) is an operation conducted in 1825 by the Royal Indian Army Dutch against the kingdom of Bone in the south of the Indonesian island of Celebes .
The Aceh war (1873-1904) is one of the longest in the history of the Dutch Indies . This conflict between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate in the north of the Indonesian island of Sumatra ended with the conquest of Aceh and Dutch rule over the entire Indonesian archipelago. This war caused 4,000 dead on the Dutch side, including a general, and 25,000 on the …
The Java War , which the Indonesians call Diponegoro’s War ( Perang Diponegoro ), took place from 1825 to 1830. Its starting point is the refusal of Prince Diponegoro, eldest son of Sultan Hamengkubuwono II of Yogyakarta , to let the Dutch to pass the ” Great Post Road ” ( Groote Postweg ) that they are building to connect the western and eastern ends of the island of Java, …
Gamalama is a kelurahan (district) of the kecamatan (district) of central Ternate of the Ternate kota in the Indonesian island of the same name.
Gajah Mada (died 1364) was, according to ancient manuscripts and Javanese tradition, a military leader and mahapatih (prime minister) of the Majapahit Kingdom , appointed by Queen Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi , in East Java , Indonesia. . He is considered to have brought the kingdom to the summit of his power and glory.
The kingdom of Tarumanagara was located in the present Indonesian province of West Java . It was likely centered on the region stretching from Jakarta , the capital of Indonesia, to the eastern city of Bekasi . It is the oldest kingdom of the island of Java known to date.
Raymond Paul Pierre Westerling (born August 31 , 1919in Pera , Turkey, and died on November 26 , 1987in Purmerend , the Netherlands), known as “The Turk”, is a Dutchcitizen born in Istanbul into a Dutch family settled in Turkey for three generations. After participating in the Second World War, he parachuted to the Dutch East Indies to fight the nationalists. When the Netherlands recognized the country’s independence in 1949, it rejected a state …
Sri Maharaja Rakai Pangkaja Dyah Wawa Sri Wijayalokanamottungga , better known in Indonesia as Dyah Wawa , is the last ruler of the ancient kingdom of Mataram in central Java (924-929). What we know about him comes essentially from an inscription on the ” Minto Stone “.
Pierre Guillaume Verhuff ( Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff in Dutch ) is a Dutch admiral born around 1573 in the Netherlands and died onMay 22, 1609in Banda , Indonesia . Captain of the Admiralty of Amsterdam ( Admiraliteit van Amsterdam ) working on behalf of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), it is known to have commanded an expedition to the East Indies composed of nine vessels and four smaller vessels from from 1607 . He was murdered by natives of Banda Island …
The Trisakti University (also called Usakti ) is a private university located in West Jakarta , in Indonesia . This university was founded November 29, 1965. In the second half of the xx th century, the university built in this place was an emblematic place during violent episodes of the Indonesian political history, particularly in 1965 and 1998.
Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi or Tribhuwannottunggadewi Jayawishnuwardhani , her reign name, or Dyah Gitarja , is the Queen of the Majapahit Empire between 1328 and 1350 . She names Gajah Mada as prime minister and is responsible for a major expansion of her empire.
The Treaty of Sumatra signed on November 2 , 1871between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of the Netherlands stipulates in particular that:
The London Treaty of 1824 or the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in London. Its purpose was to solve the different problems arising from the application of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 .
The Treaty of Giyanti was signed and ratified on 13 February 1755 at Giyanti in central Java between Sunan (ruler) Pakubuwono III of Mataram , his uncle Prince Mangkubumi and VOC ( Dutch East India Company ). By this treaty, the western half of Mataram was granted to Mangkubumi. Pakubuwono guarded the eastern half and its capital Surakarta .
The Treaty of Alliance Luso – Sundanese is a treaty signed in 1522 to Kalapa (in the north of the present Jakarta , capital of Indonesia ), between the Portuguese from Malacca and the Kingdom Hindu Sundanese of Pajajaran .
The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 was signed between the Netherlands 1 and the United Kingdom on August 13, 1814 in London. By this treaty, the English returned to the Dutch their colonial possessions in Africa, America, and Asia, as they were before the beginning of the Napoleonic wars , with the exception of the Cape of Good Hope and South American settlements. Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, …
The term Tragedi Semanggi refers to two series of popular protests as part of the holding and agenda of a “special session” ( sidang istimewa ) of the MPR , the Indonesian parliament . During these demonstrations, a number of civilians were killed. The first, known as Tragedi Semanggi I , took place on the 11th and November 13 , 1998, masa pemerintah transisi ⇔ Indonesia , and caused the death of 17 civilians. The second event, …
The Tjakrabirawa regiment was an elite unit of the Indonesian army in charge of the presidential guard under President Soekarno . The regiment was dissolved in 1966 because of its participation in the Movement of September 30, 1965 .
The invasion of Timor , which lasted from January 1942 to February 1943 , took place during the Dutch East Indies Campaign , as part of the Asian Theater of the Second World War .
The Sultanate of Tidore is a princely state of Indonesia located on the island of Tidore in the North Maluku Province . The current sultan is Husein Sjah, inducted in 2012.
The terrorism in Indonesia is predominantly developed xxi th century. Most of the attacks attributed to Jemaah Islamiyah , a terrorist group Islamist affiliated with al-Qaeda 1 .
Suvarnadvipa , “Island of Gold” in Sanskrit , is a name mentioned in the Indian epic Ramayana written between the iii th century BC. BC and iii th century AD. BC , and which perhaps designates the Indonesian island of Sumatra .
On 11 March 1966 in Jakarta , in a tense situation following the ” 30 September 1965 movement “, Indonesian President Soekarno rallied his government. He is told that “unidentified troops” surround the presidential palace. Soekarno takes a helicopter and goes to the presidential palace in Bogor , 60 km south of Jakarta.
The Sumatran invasion that lasted from February 14 to March 28 , 1942, took place during the Dutch East Indies campaign , as part of the Asian Theater of the Second World War . The invasion was to take place before the invasion of Java to destroy the western flank of the allies and allow access to Java.
The Sultanate of Ternate is a princely state of Indonesia located on the island of Ternate in the province of North Maluku . The last Sultan, Mudaffar Sjah II (rd 1975-2015), born in 1935, died on February 19, 2015. The next sultan will be appointed by the Bobato Nyagi Moi Se-Tufkange or more simply Bobato 18 , the “parliament” of the sultanate (which should not be confused with …
The Sultanate of Malacca was first a Hindu kingdom before becoming a Muslim with the King of Singapore (in) Parameswara in 1402 . Its capital Malacca was taken by the Portuguese in 1511 , which resulted in the disappearance of the sultanate. The Malay Peninsula was divided into several smaller sultanates: Johor , Perak …
The Sultanate of Cirebon ( Kesultanan Cirebon in Indonesian and Kasultanan Cirebon in Sundanese ) was a sultanate Muslim located in West Java founded in the xv th century.
Banten was a kingdom in western Java , Indonesia , known in Europe as Bantam . At its peak, it consisted of the present provinces of Banten and Lampung in South Sumatra .
The Sultan Hasanuddin Tumenanga laughed Balla’pangkana , more simply known as the Sultan Hasanuddin (reigned 1653-1669), was a ruler of the kingdom of Gowa in the south of the island Indonesia of Celebes . Under his reign, Gowa reached its peak, after a series of conquests on the principalities around Makassar and bugis countries initiated by his predecessors, the first Muslim kings of Gowa
The Sultan Agung ( “great sultan ‘reign 1613-1646) is the greatest sovereign of the second Mataram Kingdom .
General Sudirman , or Soedirman in his original form (January 24, 1916 – January 29, 1950), was the commander of the Indonesian army during the period of armed confrontation with the Dutch following the proclamation of independence of Indonesia , from 1945 to 1949.
Sriwijaya (still written Shrivijaya , Srivijaya or Sri Vijaya , to pronounce Srividjaya ), “brilliant victory” or “brilliant success”, is the name of a city-state of South Sumatra in Indonesia , which was on the location of the ‘current Palembang . It is known from three sources: Old Malay inscriptions found in Indonesia in the south of Sumatra Island and the neighboring island of Bangka (in the present province of the Bangka Belitung Islands ), Chinese records and writings. Arab travelers.
The Pangeran Adipati ( Prince ) Soejono ( Tulungagung ( Java , Dutch East Indies ) March 31 , 1886– London , January 5 , 1943) was a Dutch politician .
Mpu Sindok is said to be the last king of the Sanjaya Dynasty , who reigned over Mataram Kingdom in central Java , Indonesia . Sindok died in 947 AD AD
The Siliwangi Division was a unit of the Indonesian Army based in Bandung, West Java Province . It bore the name of Siliwangi , the legendary ruler of the Sundanese kingdom of Pajajaran .
The second expedition to Sumatra is a punitive expedition led by the United States Navy in 1838 against the inhabitants of the island of Sumatra. After the crew of the American merchant ship Eclipse was massacred by Malay warriors or pirates, an expedition led by two American warships disarmed a force that defeated the Malays in two operations.
The Sarekat Islam is an organization founded in 1911 under the original name of Sarekat Dagang Islam ( “Association of Muslim merchants”) by traders in batik of district Laweyan in Surakarta in central Java , in what was then the Netherlands Indies . The purpose of Sarekat Dagang Islam was to give more power to the Javanese traders against the power wholesalers Chinese 1 .
Sanjaya is a Shaivite ruler from Central Java , Indonesia . It is known to us by two inscriptions. The first, called Canggal, dated 732 , says that Sanjaya, raka (lord) of Mataram , founded a shrine dedicated to Shiva with a linga , on the hill of Bukit Ukir (located 10 km east of the temple Buddhist Borobudur .
The Sailendra dynasty ( IAST : Śailēndra derived from Sanskrit Śaila and Indra , “King of the Mountain”, also written Shailendra , Syailendra , Selendra or Çailendra ) is an Indonesiandynasty that reigned over the Old Kingdom of Mataram and Srivijaya , on the ‘ island of Java from the eighth century. Their reign is marked by a cultural renaissance of the region witnessed by the temple of Borobudur , now classified as World Heritage by Unesco .
The kingdom of Singasari (a spelling preferred by historians, but the pronunciation is closer to singosari ) was a kingdom located in the east of the island of Java between 1222 and 1292 . This kingdom succeeded the kingdom of Kediri as the dominant kingdom in the east of the island of Java.
The Indonesian national revolution , or Indonesian war of independence , is an armed conflict and a diplomatic struggle between Indonesia and the Netherlands , as well as a social revolution. It took place from 1945 to 1949 , between the declaration of independence of Indonesia and the recognition of Indonesia as an independent state by the Netherlands, December 27 , 1949. Indonesians call these four years of armed conflict ” Revolusi “.
The Republic of the United States of Indonesia , in Indonesian Republik Indonesia Serikat or RIS, was a federal state created on December 14, 1949 by the signing of a Constituent Charter in the home of Soekarno in Jakarta . He was replaced on 17 August 1950 by the Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia or “Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia “.
Rengat is a city in Indonesia in the island of Sumatra . It is the chief town of the kabupaten of Indragiri Hulu in the province of Riau .
I Gusti Ngurah Rai ( Desa Carangsari, Kabupaten Badung , Bali , January 30 , 1917– Marga , Tabanan , November 20 , 1946) is a National Hero of Indonesia . Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the Indonesian Armed Forces in Bali against the Dutch during the Indonesian War of Independence , he was killed in the Battle of Margarana.
Puputan (sometimes spelled “pupputan”) is a Balinese term fora ritualistic collective suicide 1 preferred to the humiliation of a surrender. Themost memorable puppets were organized during the submission of the Balinese by theDutch in 1906 and 1908 .
The Priangan , Parahyangan or Preanger is a mountainous region of Sunda country in the Indonesian province of West Java . Toponymy The name Parahyangan comes from hyang which means ” god “; it therefore means “the abode of the gods”. The Priangan is a mountainous region and the ancient Indonesians believed that the gods were staying in the peaks.
The first shipment of Sumatra is a punitive expedition led by the US Navy in 1832 against the village of Kuala Batee (id) , currently in the sub-district of Southwest Aceh Regency (in) . The expedition is a response to the massacre of the crew of the merchant ship Friendship (en) a year earlier. The frigate USS Potomac and his crew defeated the local forces Hulubalang (in) the Aceh Sultanate . The expedition can put a stop to attacks from Sumatraagainst American …
Allen Lawrence Pope (born 1928 or 1929) was a former US Air Force pilot with a rank of lieutenant and a former Civil Air Transport pilot . He became famous when he was shot down on May 18, 1958, while flying a Douglas B-26 Invader bomber during a mission to support the Permesta rebellion against President Soekarno’s government .
Hein ter Poorten was born November 21, 1887 in Buitenzorg (today Bogor) and died January 15, 1968 in The Hague , is a Dutch military, general of army in the Royal Netherlands Indies Army during the Second World War.
The politionele acties (literally “police actions”) refers to two military offensives Dutch major against the Republic of Indonesia at the Indonesian revolution : the Operatie Product ( July 21 , 1947 – August 5 , 1947) and the Operatie Kraai (December 1948 – January 1949). Indonesians call them ” agresi “.
Tomé Pires (c. 1465 – v. 1523 / 24 or v. 1540 ) is an apothecary Portuguese who lived in Asia in the xvi th century. First Portuguese ambassador sent to China ( 1520 – 1522 ), and author of the Suma Oriental , the first European description of insular Southeast Asia and the oldest and largest Portuguese description of Asia.
The Tentara Sukarela Pembela Tanah Air or Army of the Homeland Defense Volunteers – in Japanese , k 土 防衛 義勇軍 ( kyōdo bōei giyûgun ? ) – more often referred to as PETA , is a paramilitary unit formed by the Japanese Imperial Army in during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies during the Second World War .
Historians of Indonesia called classical period of the v th to xv th century AD. During which were built, often at the same time and near each other, in Java and Sumatra , religious monuments belonging either to Buddhism or to Hinduism or sometimes presenting elements of both cults. For this reason, they also call this Hindu-Buddhist period .
The Sultanate of Pasai is the oldest attested Muslim kingdom in the insulindian world . Founded in the late 13th century, it will disappear in 1523 with its conquest by the kingdom of Aceh at the northern tip of the Indonesian island of Sumatra .
The Sultanate of Pasai is the oldest attested Muslim kingdom in the insulindian world . Founded in the late 13th century, it will disappear in 1523 with its conquest by the kingdom of Aceh at the northern tip of the Indonesian island of Sumatra .
Abdul Haris Nasution born in Kotanopan, North Sumatra on December 3 , 1918and died in Jakarta on September 3 , 2000is an Indonesian military man who twice held the position of Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Army . He was the only one of the seven generals to escape an abduction during what the Soeharto regime dubbed the ” September 30 Movement .”
The New Guinea campaign was one of the Pacific War’s theaters of operations during the Second World War . It ran parallel to the Solomon Islands campaign ; some operations were common to both campaigns because of the proximity of the territories. She saw mainly opposing Australian and American armies to Japanese armies.
The Indonesian National Party , PNI or Partai Nasional Indonesia is an Indonesian political party that ceased to exist in 1973, when President Soeharto’s government forced the Indonesian political parties to merge into two parties, the Muslims to form the Partai Persatuan Pembangunan or PPP, the other parties to blend in with Partai Demokrasi Indonesia or PDI.
The Pararaton or Book of Kings is a manuscript of 32 pages folio (1,126 lines), in the kawi language , or “Old Javanese ” and “Middle Javanese”, which tells the story of the kings of Singasari and Majapahit of Java oriental .
Parameswara was the name of tradition gives a prince of the city-state of Palembang in South Sumatra in Indonesia who have fled the city after an attack in 1377 by the Kingdom of Majapahit of East Java , to King Hayam Wuruk’sreign (reign 1350-1389). The prince would then have won Tumasik (now Singapore ) and the Malay Peninsula , where he founded Malacca .
The Pancasila (pronounced / panʧasiːla / ) is the philosophy of the state of Indonesia . This name is formed from Sanskrit words panca , “five”, and sila “principle” or “precept”. It has been taken over from the five precepts of Buddhism (do not kill, do not steal, do not behave badly, do not lie, do not use drugs).
Latenritatta Towappatunru Daeng Serang Datu Mario Riwawo Arung Palakka Malampee Gemmekna Petta Torisompae Matinroe ri Bontoala 1 (born in 1634, died in 1696), more simply known as Arung Palakka , was a prince ( arung ) of the bugis kingdom of Bone in the south of the Indonesian island of Celebes .
Pajajaran is the name of a kingdom in West Java . Its capital, Pakuan, was on the site of today’s Bogor , 60 km south of Jakarta, upstream on the Ciliwung River . Pajajaran is at the heart of the identity of the Sundanese of West Java. Their tradition dates back to 1333.
The Operatie Product (operation Product ) is the first of politionele acties led by the Netherlands against the Republic of Indonesia at the Indonesian revolution . It was undertaken by the Dutch because they considered that the Indonesians did not respect the Linggarjati agreement . At the end of the operation, the Netherlands took back to Sumatra the lucrative plantations and the control of the oil and coal installations and to Java of all the …
The Operatie Kraai (Operation Crow) is the second of the poltiesthe acties led by the Netherlands against the Republic of Indonesia during the Indonesian revolution . As a result, the Dutch took over Yogyakarta and captured revolutionary leaders including Soekarno .
The Dutch East Indies were occupied by the Japanese Empire during the Second World War from March 1942 to 1945 . This period marks the end of the Dutch colonization and the changes it caused in 1945 made possible the Indonesian National Revolution , unthinkable 3 years ago 1 .
The Netherlands New Guinea and Dutch New Guinea in Dutch Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea , is a colony of the Netherlands located in the western part of New Guineabetween 1945 and 1962 . It arose from the desire of the Netherlands not to incorporate this part of the Dutch East Indies at the time of the declaration of independence of Indonesia on December 29 , 1945. After recognition of this independence by the Netherlands in 1949 , Jakarta fights for the incorporation of this colony into Indonesia and brings the case …
The Nagarakertagama , Nagarakretagama , Nagarakrtagama , or Desawarnana , is a praise of King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit written in the form of an epic poem by the court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365 (or 1287 of the Saka era ) 1 .
The nutmeg (or nutmeg) is the endosperm of the seed of the fruit ovoid of the nutmeg tree ( Myristica fragrans ), tropical tree in the family Myristicaceae top ten to fifteen meters. The hull of the nutmeg is the integument .
On the night of 30 September to 1 st October 1965, six top generals Staff of the Indonesian Army were abducted by groups of soldiers. They are taken to the airbase of Halim near the capital Jakarta and slaughtered.
The Aceh Liberation Movement ( Indonesian : Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or Simplified GAM ) is a separatist movement from the Indonesian region of Aceh to Sumatra .
The Republic of South Maluku ( Republik Maluku Selatan ) is an unrecognized state created in 1950 in the Indonesian archipelago of the Moluccas .
Miangas , in Indonesia Pulau Miangas , formerly known as La Palmas , is an Indonesian border island located in the Celebes Sea and the Philippine Sea , between the Talaud Islands in the south and the Philippines in the northwest. Administratively, it belongs to the kabupaten (department) of Talaud Islands .
The Bandung Sea of Fire was the deliberate destruction by fire of the entire southern part of Bandung City during the Indonesian Revolution by Indonesian Republican revolutionaries.
Max Havelaar is a Dutch novel written by Multatuli (Eduard Douwes Dekker), published in 1860, which takes place in Java and denounces the colonial exploitation in the Dutch East Indies .
he 1965 massacres in Indonesia are the crackdown on the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and its supporters by the militia of the Nahdlatul Ulama ( Muslim Party ) and the Indonesian National Party , led by the Indonesian Armed Forces . The massacre of the Indonesian Communists, previously allied with President Soekarno , comes after severe political tensions, which had raised fears of a shift of Indonesia in the communist camp . Their trigger is the coup attempt of …
The massacre of Rawagede is a massacre committed on November 9, 1947 by the Dutch army in the village of Rawagede, in the kabupaten of Karawang , in the Indonesian province of West Java . According to the Nederlandse Ereschulden Committee (“Dutch Honorary Debts Committee”), 431 men were reportedly murdered in Rawagede. In 1969, the Dutch government recognized only 150 deaths.
The Mandor Massacre was an event that took place in 1943 and 1944 during the Second World War in the present Indonesian province of West Kalimantan during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies . The victims came from various ethnic groups and devastated the Malayan elite of the province, including Sultan Sjarif Muhammad Alkadrie and Sambas Sultan Muhammad Ibrahim Sjafiuddin. Vice Admiral Tadashige Daigo was sentenced to death in 1947 for this massacre.
Madiun is a city in Indonesia in the province of East Java , located 169 km southwest of Surabaya , the provincial capital. She has the status of kota . Its population was 190,800 in 1992.
Linggajati (sometimes written Linggarjati , or Linggadjati in ancient script) is a village in Indonesia located in the province of West Java , 26 km from the city of Cirebon . It is located at an altitude of 400 meters, on the east flank of the volcano Ciremai .
The Youth Oath ( Sumpah Pemuda in Indonesian) is the main founding episode in the history of the Indonesian independence movement . This manifesto of Indonesian youth is the first statement of the values and ideals that would preside over the founding of the state that will become modern Indonesia .
Laweyan is a kecamatan (district) of the kota of Surakarta in the province Indonesia of Central Java .
The indonesio-Malaysian Confrontation (called Konfrontasi in Indonesian ) opposed from 1962 to 1966 of Malaysia , supported by the British, in Indonesia on the status of the northern part of the island of Borneo , that is to say, Sultanate of Brunei and the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak . Singapore was part of the Federation of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965.
The Central Indonesian National Committee (literally “Central Indonesian National Committee” also called KNIP ) was a committee meeting to attend President Sukarno in the Indonesia newly independent. Originally it was only a consultancy body, only after that did it obtain legislative functions. Following the transfer of sovereignty to the republic of the United States of IndonesiainDecember 1949the state adopted a bicameral system . The KNIP meets for the last time on December 15 , 1949to accept that …
Ken Arok is in Pararaton or “Book of Kings” (Javanese epic poem of the xvi th century), the name of an obscure origin adventurer who, in 1222 , killed Kertajaya, the king of Kediri in the east of Java . He then founded a new kingdom, Singasari , east of Kediri and took the name of Rajasa’s reign .
George McTurnan Kahin Note 1 ( January 25 , 1918 – January 29 , 2000) Is a historian and political scientist US . It is one of the experts that refers to the Southeast Asia and an opponent of the US intervention in the Vietnam War 1 . After supporting his doctoral thesis, still considered a classic in Indonesia ‘s history , Kahin taught at Cornell University , where he directed the Southeast Asia Program and where he founded Cornell Modern. Indonesia Project . His incomplete memoirs were published …
The kabupaten of Boven Digoel , in Indonesian Kabupaten Boven Digoel , is a kabupaten from the Indonesian province of Papua . Its chief town is Tanah Merah. Its surface area is 26,838 km². Its population was 35,400 in 2000.
There is a tiny Jewish community of about twenty families in Indonesia . It lives mainly in Surabaya , second city and second port of the country and capital of the province of East Java .
Jailolo is a kecamatan district regency of Halmahera western province Indonesian of North Maluku . It is located on the west coast of Halmahera . It is a port that serves the coastal villages of the northwest of the island.
The Railway Museum Ambarawa in Indonesian Museum Kereta Api Ambarawa , is located in the town of Ambarawa , in the province of Central Java in Indonesia . The museum opened on October 6 , 1976. It houses a collection of 21 old locomotives in the old railway station, from where a cog railway goes to the nearby village of Bedono.
The Pekanbaru-Muaro line (in Indonesian Jalur kereta api Muaro-Pekanbaru , English Sumatra Railway in Dutch Pakanbaroe-spoorweg ) is a railway line of 220 km in length between Pekanbaru and Muaro built by the Empire of Japan during the Second World War to strengthen the military and logistics infrastructure for the transport of coal and troops during its occupation Netherlands Indies .
The ESS 3200 is a class of electric locomotives that circulated in Indonesia from 1925 to 1976 .
The Aceh pioneer railway , in Indonesian Kereta Api Perintis Aceh , is a line in the Indonesian province of Aceh that uses diesel trains produced by state railway construction company PT Inka .
The rail transport in Indonesia is concentrated on the island of Java , has 2 main lines that cross the island from west to east and several secondary lines. In addition, Jakarta and the conurbation of which it is the center, Jabodetabek , has a regional express network , the KRL Jabotabek . Outside of Java, Indonesia’s only rail-owning region is in Sumatra , in the north of the island (North Sumatra and Aceh provinces ), centered on Medan , …
Jakarta , the capital of Indonesia , has recently had a river transport system called Angkutan Sungai or more commonly Waterways , similar to TransJakarta ‘s high – level bus service system , nicknamed Busway . This urban transport system was inaugurated in 2007 by the governor of Jakarta of the time, Sutiyoso. It is part of a plan for the overall integration of the various modes of public transportation in the city.
MetroMini is the name of a network of minibuses in Jakarta , the capital of Indonesia . It is, along with TransJakarta , the Jakarta Government Bus Company, and KopajaCooperative , one of the basic components of the city’s public transit system. The MetroMini fleet was estimated at 3,000 buses in 2012.
The Koperasi Angkutan Jakarta ( “Jakarta Transportation Cooperative”) or Kopaja is a cooperative founded in 1971 to provide a public transport service in Jakarta 1 . Kopaja has been formally integrated into the PT Transportasi Jakarta (TransJakarta) network, the Jakarta government’s public transport company 2 . The minibuses of the Kopaja, so far green and white will now be blue and white.
A becak (pronounced [betʃak]) is a kind of rickshaw specific to the island of Java in Indonesia . The Sumatra , Sulawesi and Borneo rickshaws are closer to the Indian rickshaw .
The ‘ National Committee for Transportation Safety ( Indonesian : Komite Nasional Keselamatan Transportasi , KNKT ; English : National Transportation Safety Committee , NTSC ) is Indonesian agency Standing charge of investigations of air accidents in Indonesia . KNKT is headquartered in the Indonesian Ministry of Transport in Jakarta 1 .
With more than 13,000 islands spanning some 5,000 km from west to east and populated by more than 250 million people, Indonesia has a vital need for air travel. Its domestic market is the 5 th world, behind the United States, China, Japan and Brazil, and one of those with the fastest growing one .
This article summarizes the various networks of transportation of Indonesia . Road Network In 2002, Indonesia’s road network totaled 368,360 km, of which 213,649 km was paved 1 .
The Stasiun Peluncuran Roket (literally “rocket launch station” in Indonesian) or “basic launch LAPAN” is a basic launch of sounding rockets of the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN ). It is located near Pameungpeuk (in) in the province of West Java in Indonesia and was mainly used to start with Type RX-250-LPN (in) .
The Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia ( Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, Dan Geofisika or BMKG in Indonesian ) is the meteorological service of Indonesia . It is a non-departmental government agency.
The Republic of Indonesia has declared its independence August 17, 1945 after more than 350 years of domination Dutch . The science in Indonesia was organized from the colonial era which took part in the technological development of the archipelago 1 . This does not preclude the country from having known previous scientific and technical developments, for example through traditional technologies used in agriculture or navigation .
This article contains statistics on the demography of Indonesia . Population change Curve of the demographic evolution of Indonesia Thomas Stamford Raffles , who before founding Singapore had been lieutenant governor of Java from 1811 to 1814 during the Napoleonic wars ( Louis Bonaparte was then king of Holland ), had recorded the population of the island, which amounted to 4.2 millions of inhabitants. For the rest of the Indonesian archipelago, Anthony Reid …
The Tempe Lake Festival is an annual event that takes place on August 23 on Lake Tempe in Indonesia . This lake is located in the Wajo kabupaten in South Sulawesi province on the island of Celebes , in the heart of Bugiscountry .
The Festival of Royal Courts of Indonesia , in Indonesian Keraton Nusantara Festival , is an event during which shows and exhibitions present the culture of the different royal and princely courts of Indonesia (” kraton “). The event takes place in a city in Indonesia where there is still a royal or princely court.
The Erau is a traditional festival held each year in September, in the city of Tenggarong in Indonesia . Tenggarong is located on the Mahakam River in East Kalimantan Province . It was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Kutai .
The wayang or shadow theater is a traditional and popular show in the islands of Java and Bali . Wayang means “shadow”. Its most common form is the wayang kulit , where the figurines consist of flat leather puppets ( kulit means ” leather “). “Wayang Puppet Theater” was proclaimed in 2003 and inscribed in 2008 by UNESCO on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity 1 .
The Taman Sari ( Javanese “flower garden”) is a site of the city of Yogyakarta in Indonesia , where was a garden created by the first Sultan . It is located about 200 meters west of Kraton , the royal palace. Built in the middle of the xiii th century, the Taman Sari had several functions: resting place, workshop, place of meditation, strong military, cache 1 .
The Samin are an Indonesian customary community living in the region Bojonegoro in East Java , amid a forest of teak . It is also found in the kabupaten of Blora in central Java , on the other side of the Solo River .
Pulau is the Indonesian word for “island” or “small island”. It exists as follows: (Non-exhaustive list) Pulau Pisang Pulau Tekong Pulau Ujong Pulau Ketam
Pasisir (pronounced “passissir”), in Indonesian Pesisir , is the name that the inhabitants of the Indonesian island of Java give to the north coast of their island, traditionally open to the outside world.
The parang ( Malay word ) is a broad and curved blade, used in Indonesia and Malaysia . It is used as the machete . The parang has a blade 30 cm long and 5 cm wide. Its mass is about 750 g. The blade of the parang is divided into three parts:
Panji is a legendary prince of East Java in Indonesia . Her life is told by a set of stories called “Panji cycle”, which, along with the great Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana , is a local source of many poems and stories for a form of wayang ( shadow theater). traditional) in East Java called wayang gedog ( gedog means “mask” in Javanese ) 1 . Panji’s story has inspired many traditional Indonesian dances , including topeng dances(word meaning “mask”) …
The kretek , often called cigarettes clove , are cigarettes Indonesian made of a complex mixture of tobacco , of clove and a “sauce” aromatic. They were invented in Java around 1880 and conquered 90% of the country’s smokers. Their name is an onomatopoeia reproducing the crackling that cloves make when they burn in the cigarette. The end of these cigarettes or their filter is usually sweet.
A korwar is an old style statuette mainly made in Cenderawasih Bay in the Indonesian province of Papua . These statuettes are so characteristic that they give their name to the style of local art: the korwar style .
The Kasepuhan are a customary community in Indonesia around 5300 people living in the southern part of National Park Halimun Salak , located in the province of West Java in Indonesia . The park straddles the regency of Bogor and Sukabumi in West Java, and Lebak in the province of Banten . Their territory includes the villages of:
A jamang is a sort of headband worn during traditional ceremonies, or dance in Indonesia , including Bali , Java to Kalimantan in Banjarmasin and Sumatra to Lampung , countries Minangkabau and Palembang .
Garuda (from Sanskrit गरुड / garuḍa , meaning ” eagle “) is a fabulous bird-man of Hindu and Buddhist mythology , son of Kashyapa and Vinatâ and brother of Aruna , the driver of the chariot of the god Sûrya . It is the vâhana , or mount, of the god Vishnu 1 . He is also considered the king of birds .
” From Sabang to Merauke “, in Indonesian ” Dari Sabang sampai Merauke “, is an expression used to designate the whole of the Indonesian territory , Sabang and Merauke being respectively the most western and oriental cities of this country.
Damarwulan is a hero legendary Javanese who appears in a cycle of stories ( “the cycle of Panji ” 2 ) used for performances of wayang klitik to langendriyan 3 or popular theater ketoprak . Particularly popular in East Java , these stories relate the struggle between the kingdom of Majapahit 4 and the Principality of Blambangan .
The amok is a murderous behavior, always individual, observed in many parts of the world by ethnography , then theorized from its institutionalized form in Malaysia .
The name “Indonesia” was coined in 1850 by the British anthropologist James Richardson Logan to designate the insular region between mainland Asia and Australia, which the Europeans considered as an extension of India because of the cultural influence they saw there 1 . The notion of “Indonesian nation” is probably not prior to the 1920s, when less indigenous political movements …
The Cultural Council of Jakarta or, in Indonesian, Dewan Kesenian Jakarta is an organization that supports activities and cultural development in the province of Jakarta . Founded [When?] By cultural personalities, including Mochtar Lubis and Taufiq Ismail , his status was changed, the June 17 , 1969by a decision of Ali Sadikin , then governor of Jakarta.
The Sultan Iskandar Muda (1 583 1 – December 27 1636 2 , “Alexander the Younger” in Malay , was the 12 th ruler of Aceh in the north of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia It was under his reign that. Kingdom reaches its largest territorial extension and becomes the most powerful and prosperous state in the west of the Indonesian archipelago Under Iskandar Muda, Aceh conquers on conquest and becomes …
The invasion of East Timor began on December 7, 1975 when the Indonesian armed forces invaded this newly independent country on the pretext of fighting colonialism . The overthrow of the ephemeral but popular government led by the Revolutionary Front for the Independence of East Timor (Freitilin) marks the beginning of a violent occupation of twenty-five years in which between 60,000 and 100,000 soldiers and East Timorese civilians find death.
The Borneo invasion of 1941 and 1942 took place during the Second World War , as part of the campaign of the Dutch East Indies , and saw the island takeover of Borneo by the troops of the Empire of Japan .
The term Kebon Kopi’s inscription refers to two different inscriptions, both found in this place in the village of Kampung Muara near Bogor , in the Indonesian province of West Java :
The Indonesian community of New Caledonia , whose members, mostly from the island of Java , are generally called Javanese , is one of the oldest and largest populations of Asian origin of this French archipelago of the Pacific.
Traveling across Java and Bali in 1927, the writer Bengali Rabindranath Tagore exclaims: “I see the India everywhere, but do not recognize one ! “. The island of Bali , Indonesia ‘s only true international tourist destination, is indeed the only traditional Indonesian society to have remained essentially Hindu. And Java visitor can easily notice the presence of religious monuments Buddhist and Hindu built between the viii th and xvi th centuries, and attend performances whose story is drawn from the great Indian epics …
” Comfort Women ( ian-fu ? ) ” ( Simplified Chinese : 慰安妇 , Traditional Chinese : 慰安婦 ) is the euphemism used in Japan for the often-minor victims of the system of organized mass sexual slavery. the Asia by and for the army and navy Japanese imperial, particularly during the Second World War. The use of this term is strongly contested by organizations that demand of the Japanese government formal apologies and reparations, and prefer the unsweetened …
The Darul Islam ( Arabic : دار الإسلام , Dar al-Islam , literally “house of Islam”) is a political movement of Indonesia which, from 1949 in 1963, wanted to impose by force an Islamic state in Indonesia ( Negara Islam Indonesia ) . It is also known as DI / TII ( Tentara Islam Indonesia or “Islamic Army of Indonesia”).
Herman Willem Daendels is a Dutch soldier, born onOctober 21, 1762at Hattem , Gelderland , in the Republic of the United Provinces , and died on May 2 , 1818in St. George of Elmina, on the Ghanaian coast 1 .
A Round Table Conference was held in The Hague , The Netherlands from 23 August to 2 November 1949 between representatives of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , the Republic of Indonesia and the BFO (“Federal Consultative Assembly”) representing various states that the Dutch had created in the archipelago). The conference concludes with the transfer by the Netherlands of sovereignty over the territory of the former Netherlands Indies to the Republic …
The Chinese of Indonesia are Indonesians who declare themselves of Chinese origin.
The Jakarta Charter (in Indonesian Piagam Jakarta ) was the result of a compromise between nationalists and Muslims about the basis of a future Indonesian state , established by a “nine-member committee” ( Panitia Sembilan ) and approved on 22 June 1945. This “Committee of Nine” was established by the BPUPKI ( Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia , “Committee for the Investigation of the Efforts to Prepare Independence of Indonesia”, …
The Budi Utomo , or Boedi Oetomo in his old spelling (“Supreme Intelligence” in Javanese , from Sanskrit Buddhi , बुद्धि, and Uttama , उत्तम) was the first organized indigenous movement of the Dutch East Indies . Its founder was a retired doctor of the colonial government, Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo. Coming from a priyayi family , the nobility of Javanese dress , Wahidin felt that Javanese should receive a modern education like him. The first congress of the association was held …
Boven-Digoel was a prison camp in the Dutch East Indies in which Indonesian nationalists and communists were interned between 1928 and 1942. The site was located at the source of the Digul in an isolated area of New Guinea , surrounded by hundreds of kilometers of jungle populated by hostile tribes. Among those interned in this camp, there was Marco Kartodikromo , Mohammad Hatta or Sutan Sjahrir .
The Billiton Maatschappij and then from 1924 to 1972 Gemeenschappelijke Mijnbouwmaatschappij Billiton and from 1972 to 2001 Billiton International Metals BV before merging with the Australian mining company Broken Hill Proprietary Company or BHP to become BHP Billiton , was a Dutch mining company played the xix th and xx th centuries an important role in the extraction of minerals in the Dutch East Indies and in Indonesia .
The battle of Surabaya was between the young Indonesian army , created on October 5, 1945, and youth militias with British forces , whose mission was to disarm the Japanese occupation forces and free the Europeans detained in the Japanese camps. The peak of the battle was reached inNovember 1945. Despite strong resistance, British troops, consisting mainly of thirty thousand seasoned men 5 th and 23 th divisions of the army of British India , …
Balitung , with its full title Sri Maharaja Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung Sri Dharmodaya Mahasambu , was a ruler of the kingdom of Mataram , who ruled from 899 to 910 on a territory covering central and eastern Java Island in Indonesia .
The Baba-Nyonya ( 峇 峇 娘惹 ), Peranakan or Chinese Straits , are the descendants of the first Chinese immigrants settled in the British colonies of the Straits in Malacca , Penang and Singapore .
The United Nations Temporary Executive Authority , in English United Nations Temporary Executive Authority ( UNTEA ) or the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority in West New Guinea , English United Nations Temporary Executive Authority in West New Guinea or the Force UN security in West New Guinea , English United Nations security Force in West New Guinea ( UNSF ) is a temporary administration of the United Nations of the colony of Netherlands New Guinea for a …
On 17 October 1952 in Jakarta , capital of Indonesia , tanks surround the presidential palace. The chief of staff of the Indonesian army , General AH Nasution , at the head of a group of officers, asks President Soekarno for the dissolution of Parliament , denouncing the party system.
The agreement of Renville is an agreement between the Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia under the auspices of the Security Council of the UN . Ratified on January 17, 1948, this agreement was an attempt to resolve the disputes that arose as a result of the Linggarjati agreement signed in 1946. It established a ceasefire along a line called the ” Van Mook Line “. , named after the Dutch governor general , who …
The New York Agreement is a document negotiated by the United States on behalf of the Indonesian Government in 1962 for the transfer of sovereignty from Western New Guinea (then Dutch New Guinea ) to Indonesia. This agreement was prepared by the United States in secret and without the consent of the peoples of Western New Guinea, after the Indonesian invasion began in December 1961 and after the Soviet navy was ordered …
The agreement Linggarjati is the political agreement reached on November 15 , 1946by which the Netherlands officially recognized the existence of the Republic of Indonesia and which marked the first major diplomatic agreement of the Indonesian revolution . The Netherlands was represented by Governor Hubertus van Mook and Indonesia by Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir .
The history of Java can be broken down into four periods: Prehistory, the classical period of the great Hindu – Buddhist kingdoms , the beginning of the modern era with the rise of the Muslim kingdoms and the beginnings of the Dutch presence, and the period modern that begins with the establishment of the Dutch East Indies .
The Republic of Indonesia ( Republik Indonesia ) was born on August 17, 1945 with the proclamation of independence of the Dutch East Indies by Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta .
The cities of Indonesia generally have the status of kecamatan , a subdivision of the kabupaten ( department ). The kabupaten is itself a subdivision of the province .
The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia ( Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia ) is a government position created in 1945 .
There in Indonesia many archaeological sites dating from the classical Indonesian period (that is to say Hindu-Buddhist), which goes from the v th century to the xv th century AD. AD Their official name is candy , named Candi or Candika which is demonic and destructive form of Goddess Shakti .
The Indonesian provinces in Indonesia Provinsi constitute the administrative division of 1 st level of Indonesia . Numbering 34 since 2012 , they are administered by a governor directly elected since 2004. They are divided into kabupaten , the equivalent of departments, and kota , cities with special status.
This table lists the presidents of the Republic of Indonesia since its proclamation of independence from the Netherlands on August 17, 1945 .
This list of Indonesian bridges presents the remarkable bridges of Indonesia , both in terms of their dimensional characteristics and their architectural or historical interest.
This article reviews practices in intangible cultural heritage in Indonesia .
Today’s Indonesian political parties can be divided into 2 categories:
The name of the Indonesian Navy ships is preceded by the prefix “KRI”, which means Kapal Perang Republik Indonesia , “warship of the Republic of Indonesia.” The Indonesian Navy is equipped with the following vessels(December 2014):
General Indonesia is divided into provinces , itself divided into regions 2 e level: regency (departments) and kota (cities). The kabupaten and the kota have an executive, respectively bupati (prefect) and walikota (mayor), and a legislative body (DPRD) elected by direct suffrage for 5 years. They are in turn subdivided into kecamatan or districts.
92 islands in Indonesia , geographically isolated and remote, have been designated as outer islands since the signing of a presidential decree in 2005 1 . Of these, 67 are close to a neighboring country and 28 are inhabited.
The Indonesia comprises 13,466 islands 1 which are inhabited 922 permanently 2 ( 3 ).
The list below includes the main Indonesian companies .
Garuda Indonesia serves 40 domestic destinations and 20 international destinations in 13 countries 1 .
For all the points mentioned on this page: see on OpenStreetMap [ archive ] ( help ) , Google Maps [ archive ] ( help ) , Bing Maps [ archive ] ( help ) (map limited to 200 locations) or download in KML format [ archive ] ( help ) .
In this article, Indonesian airports are classified by number of passengers according to data provided by the International Airport Council and Angkasa Pura .
Flight 714 ( The Adventures of Tintin: Flight 714 , Hergé , 1968) is the 22 th comic book series The Adventures of Tintin .
Rampokan is a comic book by the Dutch cartoonist Peter van Dongen which consists of two parts, Rampokan Java , published in 1998 and in its French translation in 2003, andRampokan Celebes published in 2004 and in its French translation in 2005.
Eduard Douwes Dekker , known as Multatuli (from Latin multa tuli : “I have endured a lot”), is a Dutch anarchist poet and novelist , born in Amsterdam on March 2 , 1820and died in Ingelheim am Rhein on February 19 , 1887. He is best known for his novel- pamphlet Max Havelaar 1 .
Inside Indonesia is an Australian quarterly publication.
Hélène Serafia Haasse , known as Hella S. Haasse (born February 2 , 1918in Batavia (today Jakarta ), Indonesia , and died on September 29 , 2011in Amsterdam ), is a Dutch writer . Author of theater, essays, cabaret texts and autobiographical texts, she has earned her great renown especially by her novels.
Charles Edgar du Perron , also said Eddy du Perron , born in Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara in Jakarta ) in Indonesia on November 2 , 1899and died in Bergen (North Holland) on May 14 , 1940, is a Dutch journalist, poet and novelist .
Louis Marie-Anne Couperus , born on June 10 , 1863in The Hague and died on July 16 , 1923at De Steeg , is a Dutch poet and writer . He is considered one of the leading figures in Dutch literature .
Peter Bellwood , born in 1943 , is a professor of archeology at the Australian National University .
Count Ludovic de Beauvoir (29 March 1846-10 December 1929) was a French traveler of the xix th century.
Culture and Tourism Aarsse, Robert, Indonesia , Karthala, 1993 Covarrubias, The Island of Bali Dalton, Bill, Indonesia Handbook Lonely Planet