The Darul Islam ( Arabic : دار الإسلام , Dar al-Islam , literally “house of Islam”) is a political movement of Indonesia which, from 1949 in 1963, wanted to impose by force an Islamic state in Indonesia ( Negara Islam Indonesia ) . It is also known as DI / TII ( Tentara Islam Indonesia or “Islamic Army of Indonesia”).
The Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo , one of the leaders of Hizbullah , one of the many groups of pemuda (“youth”) born in the wake of the proclamation of independence of Indonesia in 1945 , proclaims in West Java the creation of an “Islamic State of Indonesia”. Kartosoewirjo was among the Muslim elements removed from the Indonesian army who opposed a compromise with the Dutch. Indonesia was then still in armed and diplomatic conflict with the former colonial power.
The conflict ends with the transfer of sovereignty on . Indonesia is starting the demobilization of many units that had fought the Dutch. In 1951 in the south of Celebes a lieutenant-colonel, Kahar Muzzakar, refuses this demobilization and takes the maquis. The following year, he formally joined Darul Islam, extending the movement out of his West Javanese home. In 1953 it was the turn of Daud Beureueh, leader of the Persatuan Ulama Will Aceh ( “Union of Ulema of Aceh “) to join the rebellion Islamist .
Daud Beureueh signs a ceasefire in 1957 and begins negotiations with the Indonesian government to find a solution to Aceh’s claims. Aceh receives the status of daerah istimewa (“special territory”) in 1959 granting it autonomy in the field of religion, custom and education.
Disappointed with the outcome of the 1955 elections, the first in the history of Indonesia, who had put in 3 th position behind the PNI soekarniste and the largest Muslim organization Nahdlatul Ulama , a Muslim party Masyumiapproaches the Darul Islam.
In 1957, another rebellion broke out in the north of Celebes , the Permesta ( Piagam Perjuangan Semesta or “Charter for a Universal Struggle”), hostile to Soekarno’s “managed democracy” project , which sought to put an end to parliamentary democracy. In 1958, it was the insurgency of the PRRI (“Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia”) in West Sumatra , which demanded a return to the 1945 constitution. The two movements came together, which is why historians of the Indonesian speak of “PRRI-Permesta”. The rebellion ends in 1961.
The army can now focus on fighting Darul Islam. The men of Kartosoewirjo and Kahar Muzzakar also lay down their arms, but their leaders refuse to surrender. Kartosoewirjo was arrested and executed in 1962. Kahar Muzzakar was finally killed in 1965. The Islamist rebellion was crushed.
In June 1945, while Indonesia is still under Japanese occupation, ” nationalists ” and Muslim political leaders agree on a compromise in the form of the ” Jakarta Charter ” ( Piagam Jakarta ), which among other things states that in the future state of Indonesia, Muslims will have to observe the Muslim Shariah . This text was to be the preamble of the future Indonesian constitution. When it is written, no mention is made of Islam or shariah.
Some Muslim circles continue to feel this omission as treason. In 2002, the Muslim parties represented in the Indonesian National Assembly proposed an amendment to the constitution introducing shariah into it. The project was rejected by all the other parties. The parties claiming Islam represent only about 20% of the vote.
- Cayrac-Blanchard, Françoise, Indonesia – The Army and the Power , L’Harmattan, 1991
- Feillard, Andrée and Rémy Madinier, The end of innocence? Indonesian Islam Facing the Radical Temptation from 1967 to the Present , The Savant Indes, 2006
- Ricklefs, MC, A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300 , Stanford University Press, reprinted in 1994