The Brunei Empire was a Malay sultanate centered around Brunei in the north of the island of Borneo . At the origin of this empire, there is a little kingdom founded in the vii th century by a pagan or Hindu king known by the Chinese as Li Po-name. Brunei kings converted to Islam in xv th century, their empire extended significantly following the capture of Malacca by the Portuguese 1 , 2 on the coast of Borneo and the Philippines , then declines from xviie century 3 .
It is difficult to understand the origins of the Brunei Empire because it is little mentioned in the writings of the time. There are no local sources. It is from the Chinese texts that we can establish the origins of Brunei 4 . The words Boni (probably for Borneo) and Poli (located a priori on Sumatra ) are used here to refer to Brunei 5 .
The first diplomatic relations between Boni and China are cited in Taiping huanyuji in 978 5 .
In 1225, a Chinese official, Zhao Rugua reports that Boni has hundred warships to protect its maritime trade and the kingdom is rich 6 .
In the xiv th century, it seems that Brunei has pledged allegiance to Java . In nagarakretagama written by Javanese Mpu Prapanca in 1365, Barune is indeed mentioned as a vassal state of Majapahit 7 . In 1369, the Sultanate of Sulu declared war on Po-ni and plundered the kingdom. Majapahit sent a defense fleet but Po-ni is weakened by the attack 8 . A Chinese report of 1371 describes Po-ni as a poor area and totally under the control of Majapahit 9 .
After the death of Emperor Hayam Wuruk , Majapahit declines and loses control of his possessions overseas. The Empire of Brunei was born in 1368, in poorly known conditions. He is then led by Muhammad Shah .
In 1403 , Emperor Ming Yongle came to the Chinese throne and made alliances with neighboring kingdoms, including Brunei. In the xv th century, following contacts with Arab and Indian merchants, Brunei kings convert to Islam and become sultans 10 , 11 . The Brunei Empire was then located in northern Borneo and again became an important trading post 12 . It can be considered a thalassocracy . Its control extends over coasts, estuaries and rivers but not on the interior lands of Borneo populated by the Dayaks .
The first source of Western documentation on Brunei dates from 1550 comes from the Italian Ludovico di Varthema . On his way to the Moluccas , he meets the Bruneians 11 , 13 , 14 . It evokes Island Bornei (Brunei / Borneo), a well-administered region populated by people of goodwill 15 .
During the reign of Bolkiah , the fifth Sultan, the Empire controls all of northwestern Borneo (present-day Brunei , Sarawak, and Sabah ), reached Seludong (present-day Manila ), the Sulu Archipelago, and a part of of the island of Mindanao 10 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 . At the xvi th century, its influence extends to the delta of the KapuasinWest Kalimantan . The Sultanate of Sambas and the Sulu Sultanate have forged dynastic relations with Brunei. The Sultanate of Pontianak , the Sultanate of Kutai and the Sultanate of Banjar have sworn allegiance to him. The real influence of Brunei on his sultanates is still poorly known, Banjar for example also under the influence of the Sultanate of Demak .
At the end of the xvii th century, Brunei declines following the Civil War Brunei held from 1660 to 1673 because of a quarrel of succession, the expansion of European colonialism and piracy 3 . The Empire lost most of its territories with the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, Dutch in southern Borneo and the British in Labuan, Sarawak and North Borneo. Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin then placed under British protectorate 3 . This protectorate will exist until 1984 before Brunei becomes independent 21 , 23.
Notes and references
- ↑ ( in ) PM Holt, Ann KS Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 2A, The Indian Sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim West , Cambridge University Press,, 129- p. ( ISBN 978-0-521-29137-8 , read online [ archive ])
- ↑ ( in ) Barbara Watson Andaya and Leonard Y. Andaya, A History of Early Modern Southeast Asia, 1400-1830 , Cambridge University Press,, 159- p. ( ISBN 978-0-521-88992-6 , read online [archive ] )
- ↑ a , b and c ( in ) ” Brunei, Background ” [ archive] , The World Factbook CIA (accessed October 27, 2014 )
- ↑ ( in ) Jamil Al-Sufri, Brunei Tarsilah: The Early History of Brunei up to 1432 AD , 2000 in Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei History Center.
- ↑ a and b ( in ) Johannes L. Kurz, ” Boni in Chinese Sources: Translations of Relevant Texts from the Song to the Qing Dynasties ” [ archive ] [ PDF ], Universiti Brunei Darussalam , National University of Singapore (accessed 1 st June 2014 ) , p. 1
- ↑ History for Brunei 2009 , p. 43
- ↑ ( id ) ” Naskah Nagarakretagama ” [ archive ] , Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia (accessedOctober 13, 2014 )
- ↑ History for Brunei 2009 , p. 44
- ↑ History for Brunei 2009 , p. 45
- ↑ a and b ( in ) Graham Saunders, A History of Brunei , Taylor & Francis,, 23 & 60 p. ( ISBN 978-1-136-87401-7 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ a and b ( ms ) Awang Abdul Aziz Bin Awang Juned (Imam Datan Paduka Seri Setia Ustaz Haji.), Islam di Brunei: zaman pemerintahan Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Baguka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzuddin Waddaulah, Sultan Dan Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam , Jabatan Pusat Sejarah Brunei Darussalam, ( read online [archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) Oxford Business Group, The Report: Sabah 2011 , Oxford Business Group, 179- p. ( ISBN 978-1-907065-36-1 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) The Brunei Museum Journal , The Museum, ( read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( ms ) Awang Mohd. Zain Jamil Al-Sufri, Tarsilah Brunei: sejarah awal dan perkembangan Islam , Jabatan Pusat Sejarah Kementerian Kebudayaan, Belia, dan Sukan, ( read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) Bilcher Bala Thalassocracy: a history of the medieval Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam , School of Social Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah ( ISBN 978-983-2643-74-6 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) Frans Welman, Borneo Brunei Trilogy: Vol 1 , Booksmango,, 8- p. ( ISBN 978-616-222-235-1 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) David Lea and Colette Milward, A Political Chronology of South-East Asia and Oceania , Psychology Press,, 16- p. ( ISBN 978-1-85743-117-9 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) Patricia Herbert and Anthony Crothers Milner, South-East Asia: Languages and Literatures: a Select Guide , University of Hawaii Press,, 99- p. ( ISBN 978-0-8248-1267-6 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) Nigel Hicks, The Philippines , New Holland Publishers,, 34- p. ( ISBN 978-1-84537-663-5 ,read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) Peter Church, A Short History of South-East Asia , John Wiley & Sons,, 16- p. ( ISBN 978-1-118-35044-7 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ a and b ( in ) Harun Abdul Majid, Rebellion in Brunei: The Revolt in 1962, Imperialism, Confrontation and Oil , IB Tauris,, 2 & 4 p. ( ISBN 978-1-84511-423-7 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) Eur, The Far East and Australasia 2003 , Psychology Press,, 203- p. ( ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9 , read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ ( in ) Jatswan S. Sidhu, Historical Dictionary of Brunei Darussalam , Scarecrow Press,, 92- p. ( ISBN 978-0-8108-7078-9 , read online [ archive ] )