Today’s Indonesian political parties can be divided into 2 categories:

  • The three parties inherited from the time of the dictatorship of Soeharto (1966-1998), during which they were the only ones allowed: the Golkar (party of the regime), the Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan or PDIP of the former president Megawati (resulting a split of the IDP recognized by the regime) and the Muslim Muslim Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP),
  • The parties created in the democratization movement triggered by the resignation of Soeharto on May 21, 1998.

In the 2004 elections, 24 parties had come forward:

  • Golkar (who claims the Pancasila , the 5 principles that found the Indonesian state)
  • PDIP (Pancasila)
  • Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB of former President Abdurrahman Wahid , supported by the large Muslim organization Nahdlatul Ulama , Pancasila)
  • PPP (who claims Islam)
  • Partai Demokrat (President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s party , Pancasila)
  • Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS, Islam)
  • Partai Amanah Nasional (PAN, supported by the other major Muslim organization, Muhammadiyah , Pancasila)
  • Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB, Islam)
  • Partai Bintang Reformasi (PBR, Islam)
  • Partai Damai Sejahtera (PDS, Pancasila)
  • Partai Karya Peduli Bangsa (PKPB, Pancasila)
  • Keadilan Partai in Persatuan Indonesia (PKPI, Pancasila)
  • Partai Persatuan Demokrasi Kebangsaan (PPDK, Pancasila)
  • Partai Nasional Banteng Kemerdekaan (PNBK, who declares himself a ” Soekarnist “)
  • Partai Patriot Pancasila (Pancasila)
  • Partai Nasional Indonesia-Marhaenism (Soekarnist)
  • Partai Nahdlatul Ulama Indonesia (PNUI, supported by the minority of Nahdaltul Ulama, Islam)
  • Partai Pelopor Pancasila (Pancasila)
  • Partai Indonesia Penegak Demokrasi (PPDI, Pancasila)
  • Partai Merdeka Pancasila (Pancasila)
  • Partai Syarikat Indonesia (PSI, Pancasila, not to be confused with the Indonesian Socialist Party , banned in 1960 by Soekarno )
  • Partai Perhimpunan Baru Indonesia (P-GDP, which simply claims democracy)
  • Partai Persatuan Daerah (PPD, Pancasila)
  • Partai Buruh Sosial Demokrat (Pancasila).

It should be noted that the major Muslim organizations in Indonesia support parties that refuse to claim Islam.

The parties claiming Islam (without, however, daring to mention Sharia in their program) had obtained 23.6% of the votes and 130 seats out of 550.

In 2002, Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (parliament) passed a number of amendments to the Constitution. The parties claiming Islam had then proposed to include sharia in the Constitution, which was rejected by a large majority, including many MPs also pious Muslims.