The Republic of South Maluku ( Republik Maluku Selatan ) is an unrecognized state created in 1950 in the Indonesian archipelago of the Moluccas .
The Republic of Indonesia
On August 17, 1945, Soekarno and Hatta proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Indonesia in Jakarta . In December 1945, Dutch troops landed in the Maluku Islandsto take over from the Australian troops in charge of the disarmament of the Japanese occupation troops ( Japan surrendered on August 15). In early 1946, the Dutch arrested the separatist leader from Celebes Dr. Sam Ratulangi and the kings of Bone and Luwu in South Sulawesi , supporters of the Republic. They also set foot in Java and Sumatra.
In July, Allied South East Asia Command formally hands over the entire territory to the Dutch, with the exception of Java and Sumatra . “Republicans” and Dutch are therefore face to face in these two islands.
The federal project of the Dutch
The Dutch are organizing a conference in South Sulawesi where they bring together 39 representatives of customary rulers, Christian populations and ethnic groups from Borneo and the east of the archipelago to propose the creation of a federal state in their former colony .
In late 1946, “Republicans” and Dutch meet at Linggarjati near Cirebon . The Dutch recognize the de facto sovereignty of the Republic over Java, Madura and Sumatra. The two sides agree to create in 1949 a ” Republic of the United States of Indonesia ” ( Republik Indonesia Serikat ).
The State of Eastern Indonesia
On December 24, 1946 in Denpasar in Bali , the Dutch have announced the creation of a Negara Timur Besar ( “Great Eastern State”), then renamed Negara Indonesia Timur ( “State of Eastern Indonesia”), with the President the prince Balinese Tjokorda Gde Raka Sukawati. This state consists of Bali, the Lesser Sunda Islands , Sulawesi and the Maluku archipelago , but does not include Western New Guinea .
Faced with the difficulty of getting their federal project accepted, the Dutch, who maintain 100,000 soldiers in Java, launched in July 1947 a “police action”. After ten days, they must accept a call for a United Nations cease-fire .
However, they continue their federal project and announce the creation of a series of puppet states in different parts of the archipelago, numbering 15 in 1948. In 1949, Republicans and Dutch hold a conference in Yogyakarta .
The Republic of the United States of Indonesia
The ” Republic of the United States of Indonesia ” ( Republik Indonesia Serikat or RIS in Indonesian, Verenigde Staten van Indonesië in Dutch) is created on December 14, 1949 . It consists of the Republic of Indonesia proper, made up of half of the island of Java , Madura and Sumatra , plus the 15 states and territories created by the Dutch in the rest of the archipelago.
On December 27 of the same year, the Kingdom of the Netherlands formally transferred the sovereignty of the former Dutch Indies to the Republic of the United States of Indonesia, with the exception of Western New Guinea .
The Republic of South Maluku
In April 1950, the clashes between soldiers Amboynese the KNIL ( Koninglijke Nederlandsch Indië Leger or ” Royal Netherlands Indies Army ,” Dutch colonial troops) in the Republican units Makassar in South Sulawesi. On April 25, the Minister of Justice of the State of Eastern Indonesia, Dr. Soumokil, an Amboina, proclaims a “Republic of the South Moluccas” ( Republik Maluku Selatan or RMS) in Ambon . The Republican troops landed in July.
On August 17, the Jakarta authorities announced the creation of the ” Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia” ( Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia ), replacing REUI.
The rebellion is crushed in November. The government of the RMS exiles in the Netherlands.
On other Wikimedia projects:
- Southern Maluku Republic , on Wikimedia Commons
- History of Indonesia
- Ricklefs, MC, A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300 , Stanford University Press 1993 ( 2 th edition)