The Republic of Indonesia has declared its independence August 17, 1945 after more than 350 years of domination Dutch . The science in Indonesia was organized from the colonial era which took part in the technological development of the archipelago 1 . This does not preclude the country from having known previous scientific and technical developments, for example through traditional technologies used in agriculture or navigation .
In 2005, Web of Science listed 560 scientific publications from Indonesia 2 . In 2003, exports of high-tech products accounted for 14% of total exports, which is low compared to other major countries in Southeast Asia 3 .
In 2002, the share of GDP invested in science and technology was 1 239 million rupiah , 635 million for research and development 4 . In 2000, R & D funding came to 68.6% from the state, 5.6% from universities and 25.7% from the private sector 4 .
Among the main research and development institutions in the country are 5 :
- The Indonesian Institute of Science ( Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia or LIPI), which consists of 47 research centers in fields as diverse as physics , chemistry , biology , economics , political science or human and social sciences .
- The National Atomic Energy Institute ( Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional or BATAN) with three nuclear reactors for research purposes located in Bandung , Banten and Sleman .
- The Agency for the Evaluation and Application of Technology ( Badan Pengkajian in Penerapan Teknologi or BPPT) which collaborates with the government to establish national policies.
- The National Institute of Aeronautics and Space ( Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional or LAPAN), space agency created in 1963.
- The Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) in charge of surveys and mapping.
- The National Standardization Institute ( Badan Standardisasi Nasional or BSN), member of the International Organization for Standardization .
Indonesia has many universities. These include, among the most famous, the University of Indonesia , the Bandung Institute of Technology and the University of Gadjah Mada , which offer courses in science 6 .
In the 1980s and 1990s, the government has funded many research agricultural 7 . The logging is an important economic sector in Indonesia and welcomes in particular the Center for International Forestry Research 7 .
First prototype of the IPTN N-250
In the 1970s, President BJ Habibie when he was minister of research and technology for the dictator Suharto , has undertaken a policy for the development of the industry aeronautics with foreign technological assistance 3 . The Aeronautical Industry of the Archipelago (IPTN) was founded in 1976. It has assembled aircraft for Construcciones Aeronáuticas Sociedad Anónima ( Spain ) and helicopters for Aerospatiale ( France ) and Messerschmitt ( Germany ) 3. The first original Indonesian aircraft is the IPTN N-250 , a 50-seat aircraft built to 194 copies from 1986 3 .
In October 1994, the state created the Consortium for Biotechnology (CBI) which aims to develop and use the contributions of biotechnology for the benefit of the people, the country and the environmental conservation 3 . 34 government institutions work in the biotechnology sector 2 . In 2005, the country hosted the BINASIA-Indonesia National Workshop to promote investment in this sector 2 .
Notes and references
- ↑ UNESCO, p. 1.
- ↑ a , b and c UNESCO, p. 11.
- ↑ a , b , c , d and e UNESCO, p. 10.
- ↑ a and b UNESCO, p. 5.
- ↑ UNESCO, p. 6.
- ↑ ( in ) ITB, UGM, UI named top three universities in Indonesia [ archive ] , August 17, 2016, The Jakarta Post .
- ↑ a and b UNESCO, p. 9.