General Sudirman , or Soedirman in his original form (January 24, 1916 – January 29, 1950), was the commander of the Indonesian army during the period of armed confrontation with the Dutch following the proclamation of independence of Indonesia , from 1945 to 1949.
Born in the central Java province of Bodas Karangjati village, he attended the Hollandsch-Inlandsche School in Purwokerto , then the teacher training college of the Muslim organization Muhammadiyah in Surakarta . He is then a teacher at the school of Muhammadiyah in Cilacap .
During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies , Sudirman joined the PETA ( Pembela Tanah Air , “defenders of the motherland”), a body of indigenous auxiliaries formed by the Japanese in the event of a landing of the Western Allies 1 . He became commander of the battalion .
After the surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945 and the proclamation of independence on August 17 by Soekarno and Hatta , he turned his battalion into a regiment of the youngest Indonesian army, based at Banyumas near Purwokerto.
On November 12, 1945, Sudirman was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army, a position he held until his death. His first battle took place in November-December 1945 in Ambarawa in Central Java, against the British and Dutch troops 2 . On December 12, he attacked British positions in Ambarawa, forcing them to retreat to Semarang, the provincial capital, on the north coast of Java. The battle December 16 ends 3 .
Suffering from tuberculosis , Sudirman not lead unless the fight guerrillas against the Dutch. He led the resistance to the Dutch attack of December 1948 against Yogyakarta , then capital of the Republic of Indonesia. Theodore Friend (2003) describes him as having “… strangely blended samurai discipline, Marxist disposition, and raw courage” 1 .
He died in Magelang on January 29, 1950, and is buried at Semaki Military Cemetery in Yogyakarta .
Notes and references
- ↑ a and b Theodore Friend , Indonesian Destiny , The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,, 35 p. ( ISBN 0-674-01834-6 )
- ↑ Jenderal Sudirman (1916-1950) [ archive ]
- ↑ Peristiwa Perlawanan – Pertempuran Ambarawa [ archive ]