The Trisakti University (also called Usakti ) is a private university located in West Jakarta , in Indonesia . This university was founded November 29, 1965. In the second half of the xx th century, the university built in this place was an emblematic place during violent episodes of the Indonesian political history, particularly in 1965 and 1998.
In 1958, the Baperki University and Res Publica was founded in Jakarta in 1960, sponsored by the Baperki Group (Badan Permusjawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia), an organization of Indonesian citizens mainly consisting of people of Chinese descent. This university is created in response to ethnic quotas on university enrollment in the 1950s . The name Res Publica comes from a presidential speech delivered by President Soekarnoand means “the public good”. The Chinese minority in Indonesia has about three million people. Half of them are Indonesian citizens, the others are migrants who may still have citizenship of the People’s Republic of China or Taiwan (the Nationalist Republic of China). A significant part of the middle class in Indonesia, especially in commerce, and the liberal professions, is of Chinese origin. In times of crisis (eg 1945, 1948, 1959-1960, and 1963), this Chinese minority, of different cultures and religions, is often envied and attacked.
The 1 st October 1965, following an attempted coup in the same night, a military committee self-proclaimed revolutionary, military and other future dictator General Suharto , reacts, takes head of the armed forces remained largely loyalist, took control of several buildings occupied by the “revolutionary Committee” and moved de facto power 1 . General Soeharto also unleashed a fierce crackdown on Indonesian Communists, their leftist allies and the Chinese minority, whom he accused of secretly helping the Communists and making them scapegoats again . In this Cold War periodthis general Soeharto immediately benefits from North American support. The repression is carried out by militias of far right helped by the army. It will last two years and make about half a million deaths 1 , 2 . The campus of Res Publica, considered as an emblematic place of the wealthiest and most envied part of the Chinese community, is attacked in early October by the anti-communists. He is burned by the attackers 2 .
A new university, Trisakti, is created on the site, on 29 November 1965 with the help of the new Indonesian rule 3 . It is a private institution, which is prestigious and which, because of tuition fees, is attended by children from wealthy families. The average cost of a year of study is about eight months’ salary of a member of public higher education. Trisakti University becomes one of the symbols of the economic success of the new regime 4 .
In 1998, however, the students of this university joined a protest movement against the Soeharto regime. Three evolutions are at the origin of this challenge in the country: a more and more unified opposition, a middle class that no longer benefits from economic results, and the rise of radical religious discourses 5 . On May 12, 1998, soldiers opened fire on students at Trisakti University. Four unarmed students are killed and dozens of wounded 6 4 ,. These shootings provoked a dramatic situation, a generalization of student unrest in the country, and riots, culminating in the 1998 Indonesian Revolution. President Soeharto was forced to resign.
A university teacher, Amien Raïs, is running for president. It has the support of the second largest Muslim organization in the country, Muhammadyiah, and the support of many students to its past as an opponent, one of the most prominent 7 . But finally, it is the vice president, Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie , who takes the head of the State.
The University initially comprises five universities:
- Faculty of Engineering with five departments (mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, architecture and fine arts),
- Faculty of Dentistry,
- Medical School,
- Faculty of Economics (Economics and Accounting),
- Faculty of Law.
It now has several campuses and includes nine faculties:
- law School,
- the Faculty of Medical Sciences,
- the Faculty of Dentistry,
- the Faculty of Economics,
- the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning,
- the Faculty of Industrial Technology,
- the Faculty of Mineral Technology,
- the Faculty of Landscape Architecture and the Environment,
By the early 2000s , she has over 30 000 students 8 .
Personalities among former students
- Amelia , actress.
- Basuki Tjahaja Purnama : politician
- Bunga Citra Lestari , actress.
- Chrisye , musician.
- Nova Riyanti Yusuf , psychiatrist, woman of letters, politician
- Pinkan Mambo , singer, actress.
- Yenny Abdurrahman Wahid , politician.
Notes and references
- ( In ) This article is partially or entirely from the Wikipedia article in English entitled ” Trisakti University ” ( see the list of authors ) .
- ↑ a and b Philip 2015 , The World .
- ↑ a and b Gerlach 2010 , p. 57-60.
- ↑ Kantadjaja Pulogadung 2012 , Suara Pembaca .
- ↑ a and b Pomonti (2) 1998 , The World .
- ↑ Roman 2003 , p. 43-51.
- ↑ Pomonti 1998 , Le Monde .
- ↑ SM 1998 , Le Monde .
- ↑ JP 2002 , The Jakarta Post .