The United Nations Temporary Executive Authority , in English United Nations Temporary Executive Authority ( UNTEA ) or the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority in West New Guinea , English United Nations Temporary Executive Authority in West New Guinea or the Force UN security in West New Guinea , English United Nations security Force in West New Guinea ( UNSF ) is a temporary administration of the United Nations of the colony of Netherlands New Guinea for a few months1962 and 1963 . This administration is set up in accordance with the New York Agreement signed between Indonesia and the Netherlands onin the United Nations offices . The establishment of the Temporary Executive Authority of the United Nations should allow self-determination of the territory which was effective onwith the incorporation of western New Guinea into the administrative division of Indonesia in the form of a province . But this decision is disputed by independentist organizations some of which are armed like the Organization for a Free Papua .
The Temporary Executive Authority of the United Nations occupies the entire former colony of Dutch New Guinea, namely the western part of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands such as Schouten , Numfoor , Japen , Waigeo or still Misool . In total, the territory covers 420 540 km 2 . Its only land border is shared with the territory of Papua New Guinea . The capital of the territory is Kotabaru located to the northeast.
The Maoke Mountains form the backbone of New Guinea and cut the colony in half. On both sides of this mountain range, which rises to an altitude of 4,884 meters at the Carstensz pyramid, lie vast plains covered with rainforest and marshy forests , particularly to the south. The westernmost part of the territory is divided into numerous peninsulas, the largest of which is the Doberai peninsula .
The climate of the majority of the territory is equatorial but a mountain climate is present on the highest peaks of the Maoke mountains.
In 1660 the VOC ( Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie , that is to say the Dutch East India Company ), present in the Moluccas since 1605, recognizes the suzerainty of the Sultan of Tidore , then one of the leading states of the east of the Indonesian archipelago, on the Papuans. Tidore, the significance disappeared with the spice trade decline xviii th century, reaffirms its status as a vassal of the Dutch in the early 1870s Western New Guinea is thus directly integrated with the Dutch East Indies .
When, at the end of the Round Table Conference in The Hague , the Kingdom of the Netherlands formally transfers thesovereignty over the territory of its former colony to the Republic of the United States of Indonesia , this transfer does not include Western New Guinea. Both parties agreed that this territory would be discussed in 1950.
The Netherlands maintains their administration beyond the deadline. The case is brought before the United Nations in 1954 . Indonesia considers that Western New Guinea is its own right while the Netherlands want self – determination of the Papuans they claim to be “ethnically and culturally different” from Indonesians 1 . However, no decision emerged from the examination of the case from 1954 to 1957 , in 1961 and 1962 .
Tension rises between the Netherlands and Indonesia when paratroopers from that country are dropped over Dutch New Guinea. The Netherlands regards this intrusion as an armed aggression while Indonesia invokes the right of Indonesians to move freely within their own country. Several battles take place between the armed forces of the Netherlands and the Indonesian army supported by the Soviet Union 2 . including the Battle of the Sea of Arafura .
Talks between the two countries and under the aegis of the United Nations finally lead to an agreement on , signed by the different parties on in United Nations offices under the name ” New York Agreement “.
This agreement provides for the transfer of the sovereignty of Netherlands New Guinea to a United Nations Temporary Executive Authority ( UNTEA ), a special temporary United Nations administration, entrusted to an administrator recognized by the Netherlands and Indonesia and endorsed by the United Nations United Nations. This administration takes effect on. Its mission is to maintain the order and security of the population and to ensure the continuity of the administration and the rule of law by applying the laws that were in force until the popular consultation which will have to be organized at most. late in 1969 . The armed wing of this administration, called United Nations Security Force in West New Guinea ( UNSF ), is set up a few weeks before the. The security force of 1,500 Pakistani troops supported by Canadian and US units is commanded by Pakistani General Said Uddin Khan . Subsequently, other units such as the civilian police, the Papuan Volunteer Corps or the Indonesian military are placed under the authority of this security force. The director of UNTEA is at first José Rolz-Bennett before he is replaced by Djalal Abdohthe.
In the administration, the transition is marked by the departure of most officials Dutch, including the Governor General of the colony, before the 1 st of October. Some empty posts are thus allocated to gentile civil servants by promotion and to Indonesian officials dispatched to the spot. The, the United Nations flag is hoisted next to the Dutch flag , political prisonersconvicted before that date are amnestied and the capital of the territory, Hollandia, is renamed Kotabaru .
Over the weeks, the transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia is gradually taking place, so that , the Dutch flag fluttering next to the United Nations flag is replaced by the Indonesian flag .
The , the territory is transferred to Indonesia in the form of a province and the administrator of the United Nations, Djalal Abdoh, gives way to its governor, Soedjarwo Tjondronegoro .
Notes and references
- ↑ Richard Chauvel, “Papua in Indonesia”, in Damien Kingsbury and Harry Aveling, Autonomy and Disintegration in Indonesia , RoutledgeCurzon , London, 2003 (p. 117)
- ↑ Dmitry Kazennov, ” The Mysteries of Russian history. A mission to Indonesia ” [ archive ] , on the way to Russia , (accessed January 2, 2015 ) .